Research focus innovation management This area is dedicated to leading innovation research by combining rigor and relevance. We focus our research activities on management of innovation by exploring patterns of innovation. Together with our international partners in industry and leading universities, we explore patterns of innovation and develop tools for effective management of innovation. Our main areas of research are: Business Model Innovation, Open Innovation, Global and virtual R&D processes, Intellectual Property Management, and Leading for Innovation. Representative publications Bonakdar, A., Frankenberger, K., Bader, M. A., & Gassmann, O. (2017). Capturing value from business models: the role of formal and informal protection strategies. International Journal of Technology Management, 73(4), 151-175. Frankenberger, K., Weiblen, T., & Gassmann, O. (2013). Network configuration, customer centricity, and performance of open business models: A solution provider perspective. Industrial Marketing Management, 42(5), 671-682. Gassmann, O. (2014). The danger in missing the innovation moment: Companies fail to identify future opportunities because they do not have fresh business models. Financial Times, 14, 14-14. Gassmann, O. (2006). Opening up the innovation process: Towards an agenda. R&D Management, 36(3), 223-228. Gassmann, O., Daiber, M., & Enkel, E. (2011). The role of intermediaries in cross‐industry innovation processes. R&D Management, 41(5), 457-469. Gassmann, O., Enkel, E., & Chesbrough, H. (2010). The future of open innovation. R&D Management, 40(3), 213-221. Gassmann, O., Frankenberger, K., & Csik, M. (2014). The business model navigator: 55 models that will revolutionise your business. Harlow: Pearson. Translated into Cantonese, Dutch, German, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, Mandarin, Spanish, Russian, and Thai. Over 100,000 copies sold. Gassmann, O., & Keupp, M.M. (2007). The competitive advantage of early and rapidly internationalising SMEs in the biotechnology industry: A knowledge-based view. Journal of World Business, 42(3), 350-366. Gassmann, O., Widenmayer, B., & Zeschky, M. (2012). Implementing radical innovation in the business: The role of transition modes in large firms. R&D Management, 42(2), 120-132. Gassmann, O. & von Zedtwitz, M. (1999). New concepts and trends in international R&D organization. Research Policy, 28(2-3), 231-250. Gassmann, O., Zeschky, M., Wolff, T., & Stahl, M. (2010). Crossing the industry-line: Breakthrough innovation through cross-industry alliances with ‘non-suppliers’. Long Range Planning, 43(5-6), 639-654. Keupp, M.M. & Gassmann, O. (2013). Resource constraints as triggers of radical innovation: Longitudinal evidence from the manufacturing sector. Research Policy, 42(8), 1457-1468. Keupp, M.M. & Gassmann, O. (2009). The past and the future of international entrepreneurship: A review and suggestions for developing the field. Journal of Management, 35(3), 600-633. Palmié, M., Huerzeler, P., Grichnik, D., Keupp, M. M., & Gassmann, O. (2019). Some principles are more equal than others: Promotion‐versus prevention‐focused effectuation principles and their disparate relationships with entrepreneurial orientation. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 13(1), 93-117. Palmié, M., Keupp, M.M., & Gassmann, O. (2014). Pull the right levers: Creating internationally “Useful” subsidiary competence by organizational architecture. Long Range Planning, 47(1-2), 32-48. Palmié, M., Lingens, B., & Gassmann, O. (2016). Towards an attention‐based view of technology decisions. R&D Management, 46(4), 781-796. Palmié, M., Zeschky, M., Winterhalter, S., Sauter, P.W., Haefner, N., & Gassmann, O. (2016). Coordination mechanisms for international innovation in SMEs: Effects on time-to-market and R&D task complexity as a moderator. Small Business Economics, 46(2), 273-294. Schuhmacher, A., Gassmann, O., Kuss, M., & Hinder, M. (2019). The Art of Virtualizing Pharma R&D. Drug Discovery Today, 24(11), 2105-2107. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2019.07.004 Schweitzer, F., Palmié, M., & Gassmann, O. (2018). Beyond listening: the distinct effects of proactive versus responsive customer orientation on the reduction of uncertainties at the fuzzy front end of innovation. R&D Management, 48(5), 534-551. Schweitzer, F., Rau, C., Gassmann, O., & Hende, E. (2015). Technologically reflective individuals as enablers of social innovation. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 32(6), 847-860. Süzeroğlu-Melchiors, S., Gassmann, O., & Palmié, M. (2017). Friend or foe? The effects of patent attorney use on filing strategy vis-a-vis the effects of firm experience. Management Decision, 55(6), 1122-1142. Weiblen, T. & Chesbrough, H.W. (2015). Engaging with startups to enhance corporate innovation. California Management Review, 57(2), 66-90. Winterhalter, S., Zeschky, M.B., & Gassmann, O. (2016). Managing dual business models in emerging markets: An ambidexterity perspective. R&D Management, 46(3), 464-479. Winterhalter, S., Zeschky, M. B., Neumann, L., & Gassmann, O. (2017). Business models for frugal innovation in emerging markets: the case of the medical device and laboratory equipment industry. Technovation, 66, 3-13. Winterhalter, S., Weiblen, T., Wecht, C. H., & Gassmann, O. (2017). Business model innovation processes in large corporations: insights from BASF. Journal of Business Strategy, 38(2), 62-75. von Zedtwitz, M. & Gassmann, O. (2002). Market versus technology drive in R&D internationalization: Four different patterns of managing research and development. Research Policy, 31(4), 569-588. Zeschky, M., Widenmayer, B., & Gassmann, O. (2011). Frugal innovation in emerging markets. Research-Technology Management, 54(4), 38-45.