Research focus innovation management This area is dedicated to leading innovation research by combining rigor and relevance. We focus our research activities on management of innovation by exploring patterns of innovation. Together with our international partners in industry and leading universities, we explore patterns of innovation and develop tools for effective management of innovation. Our main areas of research are: Business Model Innovation, Open Innovation, Global and virtual R&D processes, Intellectual Property Management, and Leading for Innovation. Representative publications Tashman P., Flankova S., van Essen M., & Marano V. (2021). Why do firms participate in voluntary environmental programs? A meta-analysis of the role of institutions, resources and program stringency. Organization & Environment. Lingens, B., Miehé, L., & Gassmann, O. (2020). The ecosystem blueprint: How firms shape the design of an ecosystem according to the surrounding conditions. Longe Range Planning. Schuhmacher, A., Gatto, A., Hinder, M., Kuss, M., & Gassmann, O. (2020). The upside of being a digital pharma player. Drug discovery today 25(9), 1569-1574. Gassmann, O., Böhm, J. and Palmié, M. (2019). Smart Cities: Introducing Digital Innovation to Cities. Bingley, UK: Emerald Publishing. Palmié, M., Huerzeler, P., Grichnik, D., Keupp, M. M., & Gassmann, O. (2019). Some principles are more equal than others: Promotion‐versus prevention‐focused effectuation principles and their disparate relationships with entrepreneurial orientation. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 13(1), 93-117. Schuhmacher, A., Gassmann, O., Kuss, M., & Hinder, M. (2019). The Art of Virtualizing Pharma R&D. Drug Discovery Today, 24(11), 2105-2107. Schuhmacher, A., Gassmann, O., McCracken, N., & Hinder, M. (2018). Open innovation and external sources of innovation. An opportunity to fuel the R&D pipeline and enhance decision making? Journal of Translational Medicine, 16(1), 1-14. Schweitzer, F., Palmié, M., & Gassmann, O. (2018). Beyond listening: the distinct effects of proactive versus responsive customer orientation on the reduction of uncertainties at the fuzzy front end of innovation. R&D Management, 48(5), 534-551. Bonakdar, A., Frankenberger, K., Bader, M. A., & Gassmann, O. (2017). Capturing value from business models: the role of formal and informal protection strategies. International Journal of Technology Management, 73(4), 151-175. Süzeroğlu-Melchiors, S., Gassmann, O., & Palmié, M. (2017). Friend or foe? The effects of patent attorney use on filing strategy vis-a-vis the effects of firm experience. Management Decision, 55(6), 1122-1142. Winterhalter, S., Weiblen, T., Wecht, C. H., & Gassmann, O. (2017). Business model innovation processes in large corporations: insights from BASF. Journal of Business Strategy, 38(2), 62-75. Winterhalter, S., Zeschky, M. B., Neumann, L., & Gassmann, O. (2017). Business models for frugal innovation in emerging markets: the case of the medical device and laboratory equipment industry. Technovation, 66, 3-13. Palmié, M., Lingens, B., & Gassmann, O. (2016). Towards an attention‐based view of technology decisions. R&D Management, 46(4), 781-796. Palmié, M., Zeschky, M., Winterhalter, S., Sauter, P.W., Haefner, N., & Gassmann, O. (2016). Coordination mechanisms for international innovation in SMEs: Effects on time-to-market and R&D task complexity as a moderator. Small Business Economics, 46(2), 273-294. Winterhalter, S., Zeschky, M.B., & Gassmann, O. (2016). Managing dual business models in emerging markets: An ambidexterity perspective. R&D Management, 46(3), 464-479. Schweitzer, F., Rau, C., Gassmann, O., & Hende, E. (2015). Technologically reflective individuals as enablers of social innovation. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 32(6), 847-860. Weiblen, T. & Chesbrough, H.W. (2015). Engaging with startups to enhance corporate innovation. California Management Review, 57(2), 66-90. Gassmann, O. (2014). The danger in missing the innovation moment: Companies fail to identify future opportunities because they do not have fresh business models. Financial Times, 14, 14-14. Gassmann, O., Frankenberger, K., & Csik, M. (2014). The business model navigator: 55 models that will revolutionise your business. Harlow: Pearson. Translated into Cantonese, Dutch, German, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, Mandarin, Spanish, Russian, and Thai. Over 100,000 copies sold. Palmié, M., Keupp, M.M., & Gassmann, O. (2014). Pull the right levers: Creating internationally “Useful” subsidiary competence by organizational architecture. Long Range Planning, 47(1-2), 32-48. Frankenberger, K., Weiblen, T., & Gassmann, O. (2013). Network configuration, customer centricity, and performance of open business models: A solution provider perspective. Industrial Marketing Management, 42(5), 671-682. Keupp, M.M. & Gassmann, O. (2013). Resource constraints as triggers of radical innovation: Longitudinal evidence from the manufacturing sector. Research Policy, 42(8), 1457-1468. Gassmann, O., Widenmayer, B., & Zeschky, M. (2012). Implementing radical innovation in the business: The role of transition modes in large firms. R&D Management, 42(2), 120-132. Gassmann, O., Daiber, M., & Enkel, E. (2011). The role of intermediaries in cross‐industry innovation processes. R&D Management, 41(5), 457-469. Zeschky, M., Widenmayer, B., & Gassmann, O. (2011). Frugal innovation in emerging markets. Research-Technology Management, 54(4), 38-45. Gassmann, O. (2006). Opening up the innovation process: Towards an agenda. R&D Management, 36(3), 223-228. Gassmann, O., Enkel, E., & Chesbrough, H. (2010). The future of open innovation. R&D Management, 40(3), 213-221. Gassmann, O., Zeschky, M., Wolff, T., & Stahl, M. (2010). Crossing the industry-line: Breakthrough innovation through cross-industry alliances with ‘non-suppliers’. Long Range Planning, 43(5-6), 639-654. Keupp, M.M. & Gassmann, O. (2009). The past and the future of international entrepreneurship: A review and suggestions for developing the field. Journal of Management, 35(3), 600-633. Gassmann, O., & Keupp, M.M. (2007). The competitive advantage of early and rapidly internationalising SMEs in the biotechnology industry: A knowledge-based view. Journal of World Business, 42(3), 350-366. von Zedtwitz, M. & Gassmann, O. (2002). Market versus technology drive in R&D internationalization: Four different patterns of managing research and development. Research Policy, 31(4), 569-588. Gassmann, O. & von Zedtwitz, M. (1999). New concepts and trends in international R&D organization. Research Policy, 28(2-3), 231-250.